In answer to a telephone call, email, visit or letter, Statistics New Zealand information analysts can provide statistical information, or tell you more about the department's other services, including how to access statistics on the INFOS computer database and the Statistics New Zealand website.
Website: www. Telephone: toll free. The department thanks them and the following:. Publishing Manager: Lesley Hooper. Project Editor: Paul Cavanagh. Production Editor: Marie Smith. Illustrations Editor and Photographer: Margaret Low.
Graphics and typesetters: Totem Communications Ltd. Statistics New Zealand has made every effort to obtain, analyse and edit the information and statistics used in the New Zealand Official Yearbook However, Statistics New Zealand gives no warranty that the information or data supplied contains no errors, and will not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the use, directly or indirectly, of material contained in the Yearbook.
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This book is copyright. Except for the purpose of fair review, no part may be stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including recording or storage in any information retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. No reproduction may be made, whether by photocopying or by any other means, unless a licence has been obtained from the publisher or their agent.
The New Zealand Official Yearbook has provided a comprehensive statistical picture of life in New Zealand for more than years. This th edition of the Yearbook celebrates and continues this tradition, providing a wide-ranging picture of New Zealand society in , based on the latest possible information. Most recent Yearbooks have carried a theme, and the edition has an international focus, highlighting New Zealand's position, statistically, on the world stage. This international focus is timely. Statistics which are internationally comparable provide a valuable context for evaluation and decision making.
New Zealand is an active member of the international statistical community and makes a valuable contribution towards improved global standards and techniques in statistical measures. Internationally, New Zealand's expertise in measuring small populations is used to good effect in its role as a contributor of advice to developing countries, especially around the Pacific Rim.
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Recent projects have included coordinating the Census for the newly-formed nation of Timor-Leste and, latterly, the censuses of Niue and Tokelau. Back home, Statistics New Zealand is taking a leadership role in making government statistics more readily available, promoting the use of statistical standards and managing the burden of government surveys. Data accessibility has been much enhanced by the launch of Statisphere www.
The portal is a collaborative effort across government agencies and in time will grow to become an essential one-stop shop for those wishing to access government information. Statistics are primarily about people and their activities, and in this context I would like to pay special tribute to my colleague, the late Kevin Eddy, who died earlier this year. Kevin worked at Statistics New Zealand for more than 30 years and for more than a decade oversaw publication and development of the New Zealand Official Yearbook , making it the accessible and modern publication it is today.
I would also like to offer special thanks to the New Zealand Official Yearbook team for the high standards they have achieved and to publisher David Bateman Ltd for continuing to provide a high-quality finished product. On behalf of Statistics New Zealand, I thank the nearly businesses, government departments, nongovernment organisations, academic institutions and individuals for their time, effort and goodwill in providing and updating contributions to the Yearbook.
Their high level of cooperation, not only with the Yearbook but with all our surveys, ensures the continuing high quality of New Zealand's official statistics. Brian Pink Government Statistician. The New Zealand flag is the symbol of the realm, government and people of New Zealand. The flag features, on a royal blue background, a Union Jack in the first quarter and four five-pointed red stars of the Southern Cross on the fly.
The stars have white borders. The royal blue background is reminiscent of New Zealand's blue sea and clear sky, while the stars of the Southern Cross emphasise New Zealand's location in the South Pacific Ocean.
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The Union Jack gives recognition to New Zealand's historical foundations and the fact that the country was once a British colony and dominion. The flag features, on a white field, a red St George's Cross. In the upper canton next to the staff, on a blue field, a smaller St George's Cross in red, severed from the blue by a fimbriation of black half the width of the red, and, in the centre of each blue quarter, a white eight-pointed star. New Zealand has had its own coat of arms since Before that the United Kingdom coat of arms featuring a lion and a unicorn on either side of a shield and crown was used.
This design still adorns the top of the pediment on the Old Government Buildings in Lambton Quay, Wellington, which were built in to house the colony's public service, but which now house Victoria University's law school. One of the few specific changes to flow on from the granting of Dominion status in was the right for New Zealand to have its own coat of arms. The design was approved by royal warrant on 26 August Volcanic eruptions have killed more people than earthquakes in New Zealand in the past years, including the who died in the eruption of Mt Tarawera pictured.
New Zealand lies in the south-west Pacific Ocean and comprises two main and a number of smaller islands. Their combined area of , square kilometres is similar in size to Japan or the British Isles. Table 1. The main North and South Islands are separated by Cook Strait, which, at its narrowest point, is 20 kilometres wide. The North and South Islands lie on an axis running from north-east to south-west, except for the low-lying Northland peninsula. The administrative boundaries of New Zealand extend from 33 degrees to 53 degrees south latitude and from degrees east to degrees west longitude.
In addition to the main and nearby islands, New Zealand also includes the small inhabited outlying islands of the Chathams, kilometres east of Christchurch; Raoul Island, in the Kermadec Group, kilometres north-east of the Bay of Islands; and Campbell Island, kilometres south of Stewart Island. New Zealand also has jurisdiction over the territories of Tokelau and the Ross Dependency.
Source : Land Information New Zealand. New Zealand is more than 1, kilometres long and kilometres wide at its widest part, and has a long coastline more than 18, kilometres for its area. The coast is very indented in places, providing many natural harbours. The country is also very mountainous, with about three-quarters of the land metres or more above sea level.
In the North Island, the main ranges run generally north-east to south-west, parallel to the coast, from East Cape to Cook Strait, with further ranges and four volcanic peaks to the north-west. The South Island is much more mountainous than the North Island, with the Southern Alps, a massive mountain chain, running nearly the length of the island. There are many outlying ranges to the Southern Alps in the north and the south-west of the South Island.
New Zealand has at least named peaks higher than 2, metres. There are glaciers in the Southern Alps. The largest are, on the east, the Tasman 29 kilometres in length , Murchison 13 kilometres , Mueller 13 kilometres , Godley 13 kilometres and Hooker 11 kilometres , and, on the west, the Fox 15 kilometres and the Franz Josef 13 kilometres. New Zealand's rivers see Table 1. They are important as sources of hydro-electric power, and artificial lakes have been created as part of major hydroelectric schemes. Braided channels of the Rakaia River, Canterbury.
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New Zealand's artificial lakes created by the South Island's hydroelectric schemes are identified in Table 1. New Zealand is in an area of the world characterised by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. The boundary between the Indo-Australian and the Pacific plates runs through New Zealand, and processes from their collisions have had a profound effect on New Zealand's size, shape and geology. Renewed mountain building in New Zealand between about six million years ago and the present is primarily responsible for the landscape of today.
Mountain chains have been built by folding and displacement of the earth's crust along faults, or by flexing of crustal plates due to sediment loading and unloading. Due to this activity, well-preserved tilted blocks bounded by fault scarps steep faces hundreds or even thousands of metres high are visible in the landscape of some regions. One reason is its relative ease of access as it descends almost into the rainforest only a few hundred metres above sea level. The lower section has steep icefalls, with deep crevasses and large seracs towers of ice.
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The position of the terminus reflects the balance between snow accumulation and melt, which is concentrated in the lower part of the glacier. In periods of heavy snowfall and little melt, the terminus may advance. Conversely, when there is less snowfall and more melt, the ice at the terminus melts faster than ice moving down the valley can replace it, so the terminus position retreats. Since Julius Haast sketched the glacier in , the terminus has retreated by more than three kilometres, though there were periods of small to moderate advances of up to a few hundred metres in the early s, the late s and the s, followed by a significant advance of more than I kilometre from to That advance was associated with a higher frequency of El Nino events which produce higher snowfall amounts in southwest airflows.
Between and , the glacier terminus retreated about metres, but it advanced again in and The capricious advance and retreat of the glacier is matched by some other aspects of its behaviour. Occasionally, streams within or under the glacier are blocked and then break out in a sudden flood, often carrying large blocks of ice and in about half a million cubic metres of sediment.
During , a water flood disgorged over the glacier surface, threatening the lives of guided walkers. The following table lists earthquakes that have caused loss of life since Source : GNS Science. In the past six million years, waves have eaten back New Zealand headlands and built beaches, spits and bars.
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Ongoing movement of the Pacific and Indo-Australian plates is responsible for continued earth strain in New Zealand, and this results in periodic rupture of faults, several of which caused major earthquakes during the past century. Erosion, enhanced by climate, has transformed the landscape, carving detailed patterns of peaks, ridges, valleys and gorges. Deposition of debris has built up alluvial plains, shingle fans and other construction forms. At the coast, waves have eaten back headlands and built beaches, spits and bars. Glaciers have carved the sea-filled valleys of Fiordland and have occupied most valleys of the South Island, many of which now have lakes held in by terminal moraines.
Sea level changes accompanied formation, and later melting, of global glacial ice. These changes affected the erosion and deposition of rivers and were responsible for the formation of many prominent river terraces. Volcanic activity during the past few million years has played an important part in shaping the landscape of the central North Island.
The largest volcanic outpourings of late geological times were in the region between Tongariro National Park and the Bay of Plenty coast. Slow, silent earthquakes occurring deep under New Zealand are pushing parts of the North Island out of shape. It is likely these events have always occurred, but scientists have been able to detect them only recently with global positioning system GPS equipment.
The Pacific tectonic plate descends westward beneath the eastern North Island, but for most of the time the plate and the over-riding North Island are stuck together at their interface, which causes large parts of the eastern North Island to be pushed to the west. They manifest themselves as large areas of land moving eastward by up to 30 millimetres over days, weeks or months.
Some scientists believe these movements can shift stress within the earth's crust and trigger earthquakes, so they are not necessarily benign events. Each event has a characteristic signal. Some happen within days, while others are more leisurely, taking some months to settle. Some of the events may occur quite regularly, with an event near Gisborne repeating after about two years.